Note: Canadian sources are identified in bold.
Arditti, J. (2003). Locked Doors and Glass Walls: Family Visiting at a Local Jail. Journal of Loss and Trauma, (8), 115-138.
Arditti, J., Lambert-Shute, J. & Joest, K. (2003). Saturday Morning at the Jail: Implications of Incarceration for Families and Children. Family Relations, 52(3), 195-204.
Carlson, B.E., & Cervera, N. (1991). Inmates and their families: conjugal visits, family contact, and family functioning. Criminal Justice and Behavior : An International Journal, 18 (1), 318-331.
Carr, C. (1995). Un réseau de soutien pour les familles des délinquants. Forum, 7(2), 31-33.
Christian, J. (2005). Riding the Bus: Barriers to Prison Visitation and Family Management Strategies. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(1), 31-48.
Christian, J. et Kennedy, L. W. (2011). Secondary narratives in the aftermath of crime: Defining family members’ relationships with prisoners. Punishment & Society, 13(4), 379-402.
Clarke, F., Newell, T., & Rayfield, A. (1991). The role and responsibility of the prison service in England and Wales. In R. Shaw (ed.), Prisoners’ Children What are issues?, 114-126. New York : Routledge.
Codd, H. (2008). In the Shadow of Prison. Families, Imprisonment and Criminal Justice.
Codd, H. (2007). Prisoners’ families and resettlement: a critical analysis. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 46(3), 255-263.
Coenen-Huther, J., Kellerhals, J., Von Allmen, M., Hagmann, H. M., JEANNERAT, F. C., & Widmer, E. (1994). Les réseaux de solidarité dans la famille. Réalités sociales.
Comfort, M. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison, Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Comfort, M. (2007). Punishment Beyond the Legal Offender. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, 271-296.
Comfort, M. (2003). In the Tube at San Quentin: The ‘’ Secondary Prisonization ‘’ of Women Visiting Inmates. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 32(1), 77-107.
Correctional Service Canada. (2017). Friends and families of offenders. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/family/index-eng.shtml
Cox, A. (2019). Managing Barriers to Visitation Together: A Qualitative Examination of Family Members Active in Support Groups. Michigan State University
Dixey, R., & Woodall, J. (2012). The significance of ‘the visit’ in an English category-B prison: views from prisoners, prisoners’ families and prison staff. Community, Work & Family, 15(1), 29-47.
Duborper, F. (2019). Rencontres enfants-parents en prison : comment se parler vrai ?. Enfances & Psy, 83(3), 109-118. doi:10.3917/ep.083.0109.
Fischer-Hoffman, C. (2020). The quadruple burden: Reproductive labor & prison visitation in Venezuela. Punishment & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474520972484
Gordon, J. (1999). Are Conjugal and Familial Visitations Effective Rehabilitative Concepts?. The Prison Journal, 79(1), 119-135.
Hutton, M. (2016). Visiting time: A tale of two prisons. Probation Journal, 63(3), 347-361.
John Howard Society of Ontario. (2011). Visiting a loved one inside: A handbook for people visiting a prisoner at an adult correctional facility in Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.johnhoward.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/JHSO-Prison-Visit-Handbook-July-2014-FINAL.pdf
Johnston, D. (1995a). Parent-child visits in jails. Children’s Environments, 12, 25-38.
Moore, S. (1991). A link with normality: the role a school could play to help a prisoner’s child in crisis. In R. Shaw (ed.), Prisoners’ children what are issues?, 170-177.
Moran, D. (2013). Carceral Geography and the Spatialities of Prison Visiting: Visitation, Recidivism and Hyperincarceration. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 31(1) 174-190.
Pleggenkuhle, B. Huebner, B. M. and Summers, M. (2018). Opting out: The role of identity, capital, and agency in prison visitation. Justice Quarterly, 35(4), 726-749.
Rambourg C. (2006). Les unités de visites familiales. Nouvelles pratiques, nouveaux liens. Rapport final, ENAP, CIRAP, 17 p.
Ricordeau, G. (2012). Entre dedans et dehors : les parloirs. Politix, 1(97), 101-123.
Siegel, J. A., & Napolitano, L. (2021). Adult and Child Visiting at Urban Jails: Perspectives on Visitation Experiences and Policies among Visitors and People in Jail. The Prison Journal. https://doi.org/10.1177/00328855211010477
Young, A. (2019). Get on the Bus: Analyzing Caregivers’ Perceptions of Visits with Incarcerated Parents. California State University, Long Beach.
Vacheret, M. (2005). Les visites familiales privées au Canada, entre réinsertion et contrôle accru : portrait d’un système. Champ pénal/Penal field, 2. Tiré de : http://champpenal.revues.org/81
Vacheret, M. (2002). Relations sociales en milieu carcéral. Une étude des pénitenciers canadiens. Déviance et société, 26(1), 83-104.
Vinciguerra, L. (2019). Visites médiatisées père/enfant en milieu carcéral dans le cadre de la protection de l’enfance. Enfances & Psy, 83(3), 104-108. doi:10.3917/ep.083.0104.
Ziv, Y., Alva, S., & Zill, N. (2010). Understanding head start children’s problem behaviors in the context of arrest or incarceration of household members. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(3), 396-408.
b. Associated stigma
Condry, R. (2013). Families shamed: The consequences of crime for relatives of serious offenders. Routledge.
Condry, R. (2007). Families shamed: The consequences of crime for relatives of serious offenders. Cullompton, UK: Willian Publishing.
Davis, J. L. & Manago, B. (2016). Motherhood and associative moral stigma: The moral double bind. Stigma and Health, 1(2), 72-86.
Hannem, S.N. (2012). The Mark of Association: Transferred Stigma and the Families of Male Prisoners. Dans Hannem, S.N. et Bruckert, C. (dir.), Stigma Revisited: Implications of the Mark. Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa Press.
Hannem, S.N. (2008). Marked by association: Stigma, Marginalisation, Gender and the Families of Male Prisoners in Canada. Doctoral Dissertation. Ottawa: Carleton University.
Hannem, S. (2011). Stigma and marginality: Gendered experiences of families of male prisoners in canada. In A. Doyle and D. Moore (eds) Critical Criminology in Canada: New Voices, New Directions, 183- 217. UBC Press.
Hannem, S. N. (2017, May). “And what about the families?”: Challenging stigma in popular and political discourse on families affected by incarceration. Paper presented at the Critical Criminology/Representing Justice Conference, Ottawa, ON.
Henson, A. (2020). Desistance, persistence, resilience and resistance: A qualitative exploration of how Black fathers with criminal records navigate employer discrimination. Punishment & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1462474520976964
Le Quéau, P., Ailet, V., Dubéchot, P., Fronteau, A., & Olm, C. (2000). L’autre peine, enquête exploratoire sur les conditions de vie des familles de détenus. Département évaluation des politiques sociales, CREDOC. Cahier de recherche, (147), 139.
May, H. (2000). Murderers’ relatives: Managing stigma, negotiating identity. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 29(2), 198-221.
Melendez, M. S., Lichtenstein, B. & Dolliver, M. J. (2016). Mothers of mass murderers: Exploring public blame for the mothers of school shooters through an application of courtesy stigma to the Columbine and Newtown tragedies. Deviant Behaviour, 37(5), 525-536.
Mopas, M., & Moore, D. (2012). Talking heads and bleeding hearts: Newsmaking, emotion and public criminology in the wake of a sexual assault. Critical criminology, 20(2), 183-196.
Murray, J. (2007). The cycle of punishment: Social exclusion of prisoners and their children. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 7(1), 55–81. doi: 10.1177/1748895807072476
Touraut, C. (2019). L’expérience carcérale élargie : une peine sociale invisible. Criminologie, 52(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.7202/1059537ar
Vaz, M. (2015). “The Truth Behind the Headlines”: Media Portrayals and Their Impacts on the Relatives of Sex Offenders. Unpublished MA Thesis. Ottawa: University Of Ottawa.
c. Ion scan and drugs
AJ Media. (2000, May 20). Drug detection device angers prison visitors. Retrieved from http://lubbockonline.com/stories/052000/nat_LA0639-9.001.shtml#.WLmVrRIrKkY
Allen, W., & Bell, K. (1999, October 11). Panel assails machine that “sniffs out” drugs during prison visits: In some cases, families of Missouri inmates are turned away for what they say are false-positive readings. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved from https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/142804368/. American Psychological Association. (2014). The road to resilience. Retrieved from
Berard, Y. (2007, July 29). Prison tests keeping out some drugs, and visitors. Ft. Worth Star-Telegram. Retrieved from http://www.november.org/stayinfo/breaking07/IonTests.html
Bucsko, M. (2001, August 27). Scanning of prison visitors under fire. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved from http://old.post-gazette.com/regionstate/20010827drugscanreg6p6.asp
Correctional Service Canada. (2012a). Use of non-intrusive search tools. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/politiques-et-lois/566-8-1-gl-eng.shtml#E_Conducting_a_Threat_Risk_Assessment.
Correctional Service Canada. (2012b). Commissioner’s Directive 566-8-2: Technical requirements for Ion Mobility Spectrometry devices. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/politiques-et-lois/566-8-2-gl-eng.shtml.
Correctional Service Canada. (2015). Commissioner’s Directive 566-8: Searching of staff and visitors. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/politiques-et-lois/566-8-cd-eng.shtm
Correctional Service Canada. (2016a). National Facility Directory. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/institutions/001002-0001-eng.shtml.
Correctional Service Canada. (2016b). Visit an offender. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/family/index-eng.shtml.
Dastouri, S., Johnson, S., & Moser, A. (2012). Drug detection strategies: International
practices within correctional settings. Addictions Research Centre: Correctional Service of Canada.
Dastouri, S., & Johnson, S. (2011). Use of ion scanners in correctional facilities: An international review. Research Review, 11(1), 1-2.
Dunn, C., & Yuster, D. (2004). Letter: Ion scanner abuse cited by NYCLU. Retrieved from https://www.nyclu.org/en/letter-ion-scanner-abuse-cited-nyclu
Government of Canada. (2013). Airport full-body scanners. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/healthy-living/your-health/lifestyles/airport-full-body-scanners.html
Hagan, J., Dinovitzer, R., Coleman J.P. (2001). Retourning captives of the Amercian war on drugs: Issues of community and family reentry. Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 352-367.
Hannem, S. N. (2016). Anti-fungal or opiate? Visitor or vector? The ion mobility spectrometry device and risk management in correctional institutions. 2016 Crime, Risk and Technology Conference. Brantford, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University.
Hansard. (October 6, 2011). Standing committee on public safety and national security. (Publication No. SECU-6). Ottawa, ON: Parliament of Canada.
Hansard. (2016). Petition to the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness: Petition No. 421-01279. Retrieved from https://petitions.parl.gc.ca/en/Petition/Details?Petition=e-516
Hansard. (2017). Response to petition no. 421-01279. Retrieved from http://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/ePetitions/Responses/421/e-516/421-01279_PS_E.pdf
Harris, K. (2016, December 21). Inmate families say prison drug-scanning tool finds false positives at ‘alarming’ rate. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/federal-prisons-drugs-ion-scanners-1.3905662
Harris, K. (2012; May 30). Dogs out-fetch high-tech tools in prison war on drugs. CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/dogs-out-fetch-high-tech-tools-in-prison-war-on-drugs-1.1219522
Hartman, K. E. (2016, April 15). The war on drugs isn’t even working in prison. VICE News. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/the-war-on-drugs-isnt-even-working-in-prison
Jackson & Steward (2009). A Flawed Compass : A Human Rights Analysis of the Roadmap to Strengthening Public Safety.
Jackson, M. (2002). The ion scanner: Arbitrariness at the front gates. Retrieved from http://justicebehindthewalls.net/resources/news/ion_scan.pdf
Johnson, S., & Dastouri, S. (2011). Use of ion scanners in correctional facilities: An international review. Research Review, 11(1).
KCRA. (2014). California prisons toughen screenings of visitors. Retrieved from http://www.kcra.com/article/calif-prisons-toughen-screenings-of-visitors/6416973
Kemp, G. C, Glaser, B. A., Page, R., & Home., A. M. (1992). Influence of family support on men in a minimum security detention center. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 12(2), 34-46.
Kenny, K. (2016, December 14). Ion scanner readings blamed for visitor refusal at Gravenhurst prison. Our London. Retrieved from http://www.ourlondon.ca/news-story/7015967-ion-scanner-readings-blamed-for-visitor-refusal-at-gravenhurst-prison/
Lombardi, K. (2001, July 26 – August 2). False alarm: A new machine designed to ferret out drug smugglers among prison visitors is targeting grandmothers, substance-abuse counselors, and other innocent bystanders. Boston Phoenix. Retrieved from http://www.bostonphoenix.com/boston/news_features/top/features/documents/01730790.htm
MacAlpine, I. (2016, June 6). Reliability of drug scanners called into question. The Whig. Retrieved from http://www.thewhig.com/2016/06/06/reliability-of-drug-scanners-called-into-question
MacKenzie, K. (2019). « La seule constance… c’est l’inconstance » : les répercussions des faux positifs des scanneurs à ions sur les familles des détenus canadiens. Criminologie, 52(1), 157–176. https://doi.org/10.7202/1059544ar
McVie, F. (2004). Drugs in federal corrections: The issues and challenges. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/forum/e133/e133c-eng.shtml.
Nasser, S. (2021). Ontario announces new drug detecting scanners at 10 jails, but critics have questions. CBC. Retrived from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/ontario-jails-drugs-1.5900976.
NBC Connecticut. (2015). Illicit drugs “rampant” in California state prisons. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/national-international/Illicit-Drugs-Rampant-in-California-State-Prisons-308907981.html
O’Malley, P. (1999). Consuming risks: Harm minimisation and the government of ‘drug users’. In Smandych, R. C. (Ed.), Governable places: Readings on governmentality and crime control (191-214), Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company. PrisonTalk. (n.d). Prison & jail ion spectrometry drug scanners: Experiences and advice. Retrieved from http://www.prisontalk.com/forums/showthread.php?t=82515.
Roberts, J. E., & Rochefort, J. (1997). Strategies for the detection of drugs within the Correctional Service Canada: Research and development initiatives. In Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security (pp. 138-149). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Sample, B. (2009). BOP suspends use of ion spectrometry drug detection devices. Retrieved from https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2009/feb/15/bop-suspends-use-of-ion-spectrometry-drug-detection-devices/
Sampson, R. (2007). A roadmap to strengthening public safety: Report of the Correctional Service of Canada Review Panel. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
Stevens, D. (2008, June 3). Striking prisoners upset by scanner. The Chronicle Herald Nova Scotia. Retrieved from
Thompson, D. (2015, June 21). California inmates die of drug overdoses at rate nearly triple the national average. U.S. News. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Justice. (2003). The Federal Bureau of Prisons; Drug Interdiction Activities. Retrieved from https://oig.justice.gov/reports/BOP/e0302/final.pdf.
Vivar, J. (2014, July 2). Drug detectors unfairly target visitors: The Whig. Retrieved from
Watson, T. M. (2014). Risks inside and beyond institutional walls: Organisational responses to substance use in Canadian federal prisons (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from the University of Toronto, Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies.
Watson, T. M. (2014). The elusive goal of drug-free prisons. Substances Use & Misuse, 1-13.White, P. (2017, February 2). Prison visitors petition Ottawa to scrap sensitive drug scanners. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/prison-visitors-petition-ottawa-to-scrap-sensitive-drug-scanners/article33891061/